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"How can we educate children for peace?"


By "aggression" most people understand the wish to attack, to destroy and to kill. Therefore they condemn it wholeheartedly, and the general trend in our civilization for many centuries goes towards the more or less complete suppression of this apparently most dangerous instinct. ... the small child is a little savage, an untamed animal, whose behavior is directed primarily by the pleasure principle and with little thought to the demands of reality. ... the average family reacts in the following way: Every overt sign of aggression in the child (crying, kicking, biting, breaking things, etc.) is met by the grown ups with disapproval. ... is directed at the child's impatience and bad moods. ... outbreaks ... often lead to severe punishment. ... The child is told to be good natured, obedient, respectful. ... usually achieved either by appealing to the child's fear of trouble and punishment or to his desire to be loved. ... for hundreds of generations people have been brought up in this way, we must admit that the results are rather disappointing. ... scrutinize the common conception of "aggression." ... child's aggression causes grown ups a lot of inconvenience and annoyance. Therefore ... it as undesirable and try to break the child's will. ... also of suppressing his curiosity and his inquisitiveness.


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