Research:     Research are Reader Members Only material, you may subscribe below

Research, comprises material that has related interest to the variety of topics I have, or am, exploring.  Much is material that gets posted into my inbox, and where possible I will include a link to the source.  Papers are displayed in order of last modified

Research is a part of Members pages that also include

Articles, includes the numerous journal and website material that has come my way and sparked enough interest for me to download or otherwise hold on to.  Some 'articles' may be a complete journal issue - and this applies to UKAPI (UK Assocaition for Psychotherapy Integration).  UKAPI is no longer active and all their journals are now publicly available.

Essays is composed of of my writings, academic and otherwise, that I am choosing to share.  These include assignments from my training (now many years ago) at The Sherwood Psychotherapy Training Institute (SPTI) towards my MA in Gestalt Psychotherapy; other material comes from workshop material and notes; there are also poetic expressions - poetry; other writings appear here that might otherwise have been in the Scribbles page - which is public.

Book Notes, which focus on material from theory books (mostly Kindle copies) that hopefully provide a coherent précis of the subject matter using the actual text.  The text represents quotes from the original source book and are suitable for (academic) referencing using the appropriate page or kindle location reference.

To access the full Research Contents, Reader Members may click here

 

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Integrating Mindfulness-Based Empirically Supported Treatments into Evidence Based Practice

A dissertation submitted to the School of Behavioral and Applied Sciences in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Psychology

The common elements approach is a growing means of implementing EBPP and tethering clinical decision making to the evidence base. The goal of this dissertation is to discern the common elements of the mindfulness-based empirically supported treatments (MB-ESTs) to better inform clinical practice. This work extends and expands on the original work of Fielding (2009) on this topic, with a firm rationale based on prior common elements studies. In the current study, there will be two primary changes; 1. The methodology is being revised, and; 2. The most recent manuals and research developments will be included. This dissertation contributes to the mindfulness scholarship because it offers an opportunity to further validate and derive the core constituents of effective mindfulness-based treatment. From this study of the common elements of the MB-ESTs, benchmarks may be derived for clinical considerations for mindfulness-based evidence based practice

Kristen Kochamba. Doctor of Psychology, 2017. Azusa Pacific University. Advisor: Katharine Putman, Psy.D

Kristen Kochamba 2017 Integrating Mindfulness-Based Empirically Supported Treatments (Mb-Ests) Into Evidence Based Practice (Ebp): A Replication And Extension Study. Dissertation Submitted To The School Of Behavioral And Applied Sciences In Partial Fulfillment Of The Requirements For The Degree Doctor Of Psychology Azusa Pacific University

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14 October 2021

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Dissociation Affect Dysregulation and Somatization

This study investigates the relationship between the current diagnostic formulation of PTSD and the symptoms of dissociation, affect dysregulation and somatization. Over the past century, these symptoms consistently have been shown to be related, regardless of whether investigators have approached their subjects prospectively or retrospectively, or from the vantage point of 1) psychological trauma, 2) dissociation, 3) somatization, or 4) disorders of affect regulation.

PTSD, dissociation, somatization and affect dysregulation can be different expressions of adaptation to trauma. While they often go together, traumatized individuals may suffer from different combinations of symptoms over time. When treating individuals with histories of psychic trauma, it is critical to attend to the dimensions of dissociation, somatization, and affect dysregulation, even when intrusive recollections of the trauma currently are not prominent symptoms.

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9 September 2021

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A literature review of the evidence for the effectiveness of experiential psychotherapies

The purpose of this literature review is to review the evidence base for the effectiveness of experiential psychotherapies, conducted in international and Australian settings. A systematic review of internationally published research from the last five years, and Australian research from the last 10 years, was conducted using PsychINFO, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases. The findings of research studies included in this review have been integrated with the findings of previous meta-reviews on experiential psychotherapies. Five meta-reviews and 14 recent studies met the inclusion criteria. There is a very high standard of evidence for the effectiveness of experiential psychotherapies with depression, medical conditions and unresolved relationship concerns. Experiential therapies are equally efficacious in improving psychological coping compared to other interventions, including Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. The evidence for the effectiveness of experiential psychotherapies with anxiety is weaker, and further research is needed. Experiential therapists need to be willing to participate in research to build the evidence base for this modality.

Mullings, B. (2017). A literature review of the evidence for the effectiveness of experiential psychotherapies. Melbourne: PACFA.

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19 August 2021

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Expressive, research and reflective poetry as qualitative inquiry: a study of adolescent identity

This article explores the uses of poetry in qualitative research. In this study of adolescent identity and development, poetry is used as data, as a means of data representation, and as a process of inquiry. The authors explore the nature of poetry as a tool of qualitative research for investigating human phenomena. Autobiographical poems are used as data which are analysed through thematic analysis. From this analysis, research poems in the form of Japanese tankas are created. Finally, the third and fourth authors respond to the original poems and the ‘findings’ from the grounded theory analysis as responsive poems.

Rich Furman R., Langer C. L., Davis C. S., Gallardo H. P., and Kulkarni S. 2007 Expressive, research and reflective poetry as qualitative inquiry: a study of adolescent identity. Qualitative Research 7; 3

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19 August 2021

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Representing narrative process in therapy: Qualitative analysis of a single case.

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in an approach which views counselling and psychotherapy as being concerned with giving clients opportunities to articulate, examine and re-author aspects of their life-stories. However, most of the literature associated with this approach has been based on observations of clinical practice, and there is a need to develop more systematic research in this area. The present study uses qualitative methods to identify and categorize different types of narrative events occurring in therapy discourse. A representation is offered of the process by which experience is narrativized during therapy. The data for this analysis is drawn from an intensive study of one session of person-centred counselling. The issues involved in applying this method of qualitative analysis are discussed, and the implications of these findings for research and practice are outlined.

McLeod, John Balamoutsou, Sophia. 1996 Representing narrative process in therapy: Qualitative analysis of a single case. ; Counselling Psychology Quarterly, Vol 9(1), pp. 61-76

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5 August 2021

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Intolerance of Uncertainty-Focused Treatment for Adolescents With Excessive Worry: A Pilot Feasibility Study

Bouts of excessive worry are common across the lifespan, increasing in frequency and complexity during adolescence and adulthood, and are found in several psychiatric disorders, particularly the anxiety disorders. There are evidence-based treatments for adolescents with anxiety disorders but psychological treatments designed specifically to target excessive worrying in adolescents are rare. Intolerance of uncertainty (IU), a cognitive predisposition described as a fear of the unknown, is highly associated with worry among adolescents. This study investigated the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of IU-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (IU-CBT) for adolescents with excessive worry.

T. Wahlund, E. Andersson, M. Jolstedt, et al., 2019 Intoleranceof Uncertainty Focused Treatment for Adolescents With Excessive Worry: A Pilot Feasibility Study. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice,accepted June 2019

https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.cbpra.2019.06.002

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5 August 2021

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Suicide and internalised relationships: A study from the perspective of psychotherapists working with suicidal patients

A study was conducted into the personal meanings of suicide. It is recognised that early experiences of relationships can have a bearing upon a later tendency towards suicide. This project investigated the representations which these relationships take on within the person’s inner world and their effect upon the person’s behaviour. One hundred psychotherapists were surveyed, by means of a postal questionnaire, regarding their work with suicidal patients. Five follow-up interviews were conducted. The main themes that emerged in the patients ’ relationships were rejection, invasion and engulfment. These were experienced as forms of abandonment. Incidents involving loss or rejection in the patients’ present life were found to re-activate these earlier relationships.

Barbara M. Richards (1999) Suicide and internalised relationships: A study from the perspective of psychotherapists working with suicidal patients, British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 27:1, 85-98

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5 August 2021

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Schools of Psychotherapy and the Beginnings of a Scientific Approach

The theoretical, clinical, and empirical foundations of psychotherapy come from five primary movements that still exist today, continue to evolve, and remain scientifically productive: psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, humanistic, systemic, and integrative. The goal of this chapter is to examine the philosophical, clinical, and scientific underpinnings of each of these major traditions in detail. Experts in these five approaches will describe: (a) the model of psychopathology (especially focusing upon etiological and maintenance factors emphasized in assessment and case formulation); (b) the focus and specific techniques used in treatment planning and implementation; (c) the hypothesized therapeutic mechanisms of change; and (d)the outcome literature/empirical support for each modality. We conclude with a look toward the future of the science of psychotherapy and the scientist-practitioner model of psychotherapy.

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5 August 2021

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Predictors of suicide relative to other deaths in patients with suicide attempts and suicide ideation: A 30-year prospective study

Background: Although there is a large literature that prospectively examines predictors of suicide, low base rates of suicide and imprecision of measurement hinder definitive conclusions from being drawn. Method: This study examined predictors of suicide relative to other types of death in a sample of 297 patients who had been hospitalized for suicide ideation or a suicide attempt between 1970 and 1975 and who were confirmed dead in 2005. Many predictors were measured using well-validated assessment instruments.

Amy Wenzel, Edward R. Berchick, Thomas Tenhave, Steffanie Halberstadt, Gregory K. Brown, Aaron T. Beck 2011. Predictors of suicide relative to other deaths in patients with suicide attempts and suicide ideation: A 30-year prospective study. Journal of Affective Disorders 132 (2011) 375–382 Available online 8 April 2011

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5 August 2021

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Ontological and Epistemological Foundations of Qualitative Research

The purpose of this paper is to describe the most relevant features of qualitative research in order to show how, from the Epistemology of the Known Subject perspective I propose, it is necessary to review first the ontological and then the epistemological grounds of this type of inquiry. I begin by following the path that leads from the Epistemology of the Knowing Subject to the Epistemology of the Known Subject, proposed as a new and non exclusive way of knowing. I pass on to describe the primary and secondary characteristics of qualitative research, expressing the need for an ontological rupture. Finally, cognitive interaction and cooperative knowledge construction are considered as two fundamental features in the process of qualitative research grounded on the Epistemology of the Known Subject.

Irene Vasilachis de Gialdino. 2009 Ontological and Epistemological Foundations of Qualitative Research. Volume 10, No. 2, Art. 30

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5 August 2021

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Client experiences of agency in therapy, Person-Centered & Experiential Psychotherapies,

This study sought an understanding of clients’ experiences with psychotherapy from clients’ own points of view. Eleven 18–23-year-old clients or former clients participated in in-depth, semi-structured interviews about their experiences and opinions of therapy. The interviews were transcribed, and themes were extracted, drawing on techniques from Grounded Theory.

Corinne Hoener, William B. Stiles, Barbara J. Luka & Richard A. Gordon (2012): Client experiences of agency in therapy, Person-Centered & Experiential Psychotherapies, 11:1, 64-82

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5 August 2021

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The Journey of the Counselor and Therapist: Research Findings and Perspectives on Professional Development

This article summarizes a reformulation of the main findings and perspectives from a cross-sectional and longitudinal qualitative study of the development of 100 counselors and therapists. The results are presented as a phase model and as a formulation of 14 themes of counselor/therapist development. The following six phases are described: The phases of the lay helper, the beginning student, the advanced student, the novice professional, the experienced professional, and the senior professional

Helge Rønnestad, Thomas Skovholt. 2003 The Journey of the Counselor and Therapist: Research Findings and Perspectives on Professional Development. Journal of Career Development, Vol. 30, No. 1, Fall 2003

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5 August 2021

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Childhood trauma, proactive coping, and borderline personality among adults

Research on the factors causing borderline personality (BP) has not been done although Indonesian adults are showing several behaviors classified under BP criteria. According to the theory, childhood trauma and proactive coping play a role against BP. Therefore, research is done to find out the relationship between childhood trauma, proactive coping, and borderline personality. The researcher expects to prevent the occurrence of BP by understanding the relationship. Participants in this study aged 20-40 years (N = 247). The results of this study shows relationship between childhood trauma, proactive coping and BP, R = .548 (p <.01). Childhood trauma and proactive coping contribute for 29.3% of BP. Childhood trauma affects BP (t = 4,130) and proactive coping affects BP (t = - 6,319). From this data, it is concluded that BP can be prevented by avoiding childhood trauma and increasing proactive coping.

Wibhowo, C., Retnowati, S., & Ul Hasanat, N.  International Journal of Research Studies in Psychology 2019 Volume 8 Number 1, 27-35

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5 August 2021

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No Change? A Grounded Theory Analysis of Depressed Patients' Perspectives on Non-improvement in Psychotherapy

Understanding the effects of psychotherapy is a crucial concern for both research and clinical practice, especially when outcome tends to be negative. Yet, while outcome is predominantly evaluated by means of quantitative pre-post outcome questionnaires, it remains unclear what this actually means for patients in their daily lives. To explore this meaning, it is imperative to combine treatment evaluation with quantitative and qualitative outcome measures. This study investigates the phenomenon of non-improvement in psychotherapy, by complementing quantitative pre-post outcome scores that indicate no reliable change in depression symptoms with a qualitative inquiry of patients’ perspectives.

Melissa Miléna De Smet, Reitske Meganck, Kimberly Van Nieuwenhove, Femke L. Truijens  and Mattias Desmet. 2019. No Change? A Grounded Theory Analysis of Depressed Patients’ Perspectives on Non-improvement in Psychotherapy. Frontiers in Psychology March Volume 10, Article 588

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5 August 2021

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A Relational Approach to Personality Disorder and Alliance Rupture

It is agreed by clinicians from diverse orientations as the cognitive (Pretzer & Beck, 2005), interpersonal (Benjamin, 2005), attachment (Levy, 2005), and object relations (Clarkin, Yeomans, & Kernberg, 2006) perspectives that clients with personality disorders encounter difficulties with self or identity and interpersonal functioning. In fact, more often than not, it is an interpersonal problem in the social or work environment that brings clients with personality disorders into treatment. As such, interpersonal functioning is a major focus of treatment with this group of clients.

Sumru Tufekcioglu and J. Christopher Muran

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5 August 2021

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Escaping, forgetting and revisiting the scene: The post-traumatic compulsion to repeat in obsessive-compulsive disorder

There are levels at which our cognitive structures are not so well developed and especially when we rely on auxiliary figures (usually parents) to help us deal with what is taking place in and around us. It proposes that the sense that is made or not made of these events within the environment contributes to the development of dramatic versions of their meaning.

John O’Connor, Mary Fell & Ray Fuller (2010): Escaping, forgetting and revisiting the scene: The post-traumatic compulsion to repeat in obsessive-compulsive disorder, Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 23:1, 55-66

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5 August 2021

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Client Choice Of Treatment And Client Outcomes

Participants in this study suffered from severe mental illness and were homeless at baseline. They were given their choice of five different treatment programs. The current study investigated two major questions: (1) what is the impact of positive expectancies about the efficacy of the chosen program on number of contacts with the chosen program and client outcomes; and (2) what is the impact of positive views about nonchosen programs (alternative choice variables) on contact with the chosen program and client outcomes. Client outcomes assessed were psychotic

Robert J. Calsyn, Gary A. Morse, Robert D. Yonker, Joel P. Winter, Kathy J. Pierce and Matthew J. Taylor. 2003 Client choice of treatment and client outcomes. Journal Of Community Psychology, Vol. 31, No. 4, 339–348 (2003)

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5 August 2021

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A bodhisattva-spirit-oriented counselling framework: inspired by Vimalakīrti wisdom

A number of studies have integrated Buddhist principles into therapeutic interventions, demonstrating effective outcomes; however, very little Buddhist textual data support the theoretical foundation of those models. This exploratory research conceptualises a counselling framework based on a canonical analysis of the Vimalakīrti Nirdeśa Sūtra, together with a qualitative inquiry. 

Cheng and Tse: A bodhisattva-spirit-oriented counselling framework: inspired by Vimalakīrti wisdom. International Journal of Dharma Studies 2014 2:6.

http://A bodhisattva-spirit-oriented counselling framework

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5 August 2021

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Impact Of Traumatic Experiences In Childhood For The Development Of Borderline Personality Disorder

People with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have a marked affect instability, identity pathology, chaotic relationships, and dangerous behaviors, including suicide, having a huge impact on daily life. (Porter et al., 2020). Even though BPD has a severe impact in the population, little is known about the etiology or risk factors that can contribute to this disorder, and the interventions than can be made in an early stage of life.

Medrano Garza, R., Caceres Vargas, M., Ruiz Meza, R. (2021). IMPACT OF TRAUMATIC EXPERIENCES IN CHILDHOOD FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER: A CASE REPORT. Academia Letters, Article 1340. 

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5 August 2021

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Cognitive-behavioural therapy versus psychodynamic psychotherapy for the treatment of depression: a critical review of evidence and current issues

Two of the most popular psychotherapeutic approaches to treat depression are cognitive-behavioural therapy and psychodynamic psychotherapy, yet little consensus has been reached concerning which therapy is most beneficial for the treatment of depression. A review of the literature revealed that, while cognitive-behavioural therapy and psychodynamic psychotherapy are the most effective psychotherapeutic modalities for the treatment of depression, evidence suggests that neither of these modalities is superior to the other.

Daniel Goldstone 2016. Cognitive-behavioural therapy versus psychodynamic psychotherapy for the treatment of depression: a critical review of evidence and current issues. South African Journal of Psychology 1–13. 2016

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5 August 2021